is the Holocaust?
Holocaust was the systematic annihilation of six million
Jews by the Nazi regime during World War 2. In 1933
approximately nine million Jews lived in the 21 countries
of Europe that would be occupied by Germany during the
war. By 1945 two out of every three European Jews had been
killed. The European Jews were the primary victims of the
Holocaust. But Jews were not the only group singled out
for persecution by Hitler’s Nazi regime. As many as
one-half million Gypsies, at least 250,000 mentally or
physically disabled persons, and more than three million
Soviet prisoners-of-war also fell victim to Nazi genocide.
Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, Social Democrats,
Communists, partisans, trade unionists, Polish
intelligentsia and other undesirables were also
victims of the hate and aggression carried out by the
many Jews were murdered during the Holocaust?
it is impossible to ascertain the exact number of Jewish
victims, statistics indicate that the total was over
5,830,000. Six million is the round figure accepted by
does Final Solution mean?
term Final Solution (Die Endlosung) refers to the
Germans’ plan to physically liquidate all Jews in
Europe. The term was used at the Wannsee
Conference held in Berlin on January 20, 1942, where
German officials discussed its implementation.
many children were murdered during the Holocaust?
number of children killed during the Holocaust is not
fathomable and full statistics for the tragic fate of
children who died will never be known. Some estimates
range as high as 1.5 million murdered children. This
figure includes more than 1.2 million Jewish children,
tens of thousands of Gypsy children and thousands of
institutionalized handicapped children who were murdered
under Nazi rule in Germany and occupied Europe.
did Hitler hate the Jews?
happened because Hitler and the Nazis were racist. They
believed the German people were a 'master race', who
were superior to others. They even created a league table
of 'races' with the Aryans at the top and with Jews, Gypsies
and black people at the bottom. These 'inferior' people
were seen as a threat to the purity and strength of the
German nation. When the Nazis came to power they
persecuted these people, took away their human rights and
eventually decided that they should be exterminated.
did the Nazis carry our their
policy of genocide?
the late 1930's the Nazis killed thousands of handicapped
Germans by lethal injection and poisonous gas. After the
German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, mobile
killing units following in the wake of the German Army
began shooting massive numbers of Jews and Gypsies in open
fields and ravines on the outskirts of conquered cities
and towns. Eventually the Nazis created a more secluded
and organized method of killing. Six extermination centers
were established in occupied Poland where large-scale
murder by gas and body disposal through cremation were
conducted systematically. Victims were deported to these
centers from Western Europe and from the ghettos in
Eastern Europe which the Nazis had established. In
addition, millions died in the ghettos and concentration
camps as a result of forced labor, starvation, exposure,
brutality, disease, and execution.
was the first concentration camp established?
was the first concentration camp established and was
opened on March 22, 1933. The camp's first inmates were
primarily political prisoners (Communists or Social
Democrats), habitual criminals, homosexuals, Jehovah's
Witnesses, and anti-socials (beggars, vagrants,
hawkers). Others considered problematic by the Nazis were
also included (Jewish writers and journalists, lawyers,
unpopular industrialists, and political
is a death camp? How many? Where?
death camp camp is a concentration camp with special
apparatus especially designed for mass murder. Six such
camps existed: Auschwitz-Birkenau,
Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor, and Tremblinka.
All were located in Poland.
became the killing centre where the largest numbers of
European Jews were killed. After an experimental gassing
there in September 1941 of 850 malnourished and ill
prisoners, mass murder became a daily routine. By mid
1942, mass gassing of Jews using Zyklon-B began at
Auschwitz, where extermination was conducted on an
industrial scale with some estimates running as high as
three million persons eventually killed through gassing,
starvation, disease, shooting, and burning.
the Jews resist?
Jews simply could not believe that Hitler really meant to
kill them all. But once the Nazis had complete control and
the Jews were being relocated to ghettos, rations were
reduced, conditions were horrible and the Jews did
not have the strength, physically, emotionally, or
militarily, to resist. There were uprisings in the
camps, but it was incredibly difficult and rarely
successful. Elie Wiesel put it this way: "The
question is not why all the Jews did not fight, but how so
many of them did. Tormented, beaten, starved, where did
they find the strength - spiritual and physical - to
Those attempting to resist faced almost impossible odds.
Beate and Serge Klarsfeld
Bolivia Web "The Outsiders"
Philippe Brunet-Lecomte, "Les trois traîtres français
d'Izieu," Lyon Figaro 2 June, 1987
Pierre Bois, "D'Izieu à Auschwitz, le martyre de
44 enfants," Le Figaro 28 May, 1987
Letter from Izieu By Raphael Rothstein
Musee Memorial des Enfants d’Izieu (Memorial Museum of
the Children of Izieu)- www.izieu.alma.fr/
Photographs from French Children of the Holocaust A
Memorial by Serge Klarsfeld
The Consortium by Martin A. Lee
The History of Espionage - www.theoffice.net/1spy
The Macedonian News Service
The Philadelphia Inquirer
The Simon Wiesenthal Center - www.wiesenthal.com/
Wiesenthal Center Museum - The
Museum of Tolerance
The Trial of Klaus Barbie -
The Jewish Week
New Jersey Jewish News
National Archives, USHMM Photo Archives
Agnes Zsolt, Budapest 1947: Dr. Judah Marton,
The Diary of Eva Heyman
JewishGen: The Home of Jewish Genealogy
True North: The Moving Finger Writes...